# A Portrait of Space – Time in the Vision of the EPR Paradox Investigation

## The Quantum Main Feature

**Quantum theory** (further information in ** here**), renowned for its

**perplexing**and

**counterintuitive features**, is notably characterized by the

**phenomenon**of

**Non-Locality**^{a}[

__1__]. This aspect of

**quantum mechanics**involves the

**influence**of the

**measurement**of one part of a

**quantum system**on another part, regardless of the

**distance**separating them, provided the system is described by an

**entangled**,

**non-separable wavefunction**

^{b}. This phenomenon, dramatically illustrated by the

__(__

**Einstein - Podolsky - Rosen**__)__

**EPR**__, raises__

**Paradox****profound questions**about the

**nature**of

**reality**and

__.__

**Locality**## It’s Time of Paradoxes…

The **EPR paradox** highlights **two distinct puzzles** in quantum mechanics. The **first**, termed the **EPR Locality Paradox**, emerges in **non-relativistic quantum mechanics** and pertains to the **non-local correlations** enforced by **entanglement** ^{b} (further information in ** here**, Ref. 2). The

**second**, the

**EPR Influence Paradox**, arises in the context of

**Special Relativity**, where the

**order**of

**measurements**on

**spacelike separated entangled particles**can differ between

**reference frames.**

When considering the EPR paradox under special relativity, a **deeper mystery** arises. For **spacelike separated measurements** on entangled particles, there exist reference frames where the **temporal order** of these measurements is **reversed**. This relativity of **Simultaneity** [__2__] introduces additional **complexity** into **understanding** the non-local ^{a} influences described by quantum mechanics.

The **non-local influence** between entangled particles appears **unattenuated** by **distance**, discriminates specifically between entangled components, and can operate at **speeds exceeding** that of **light**. **These properties** starkly **conflict** with **special relativity**, which posits that the **speed of light** is the **ultimate speed limit** for **causal influences**.

By **acknowledging** that quantum measurements actualize particles into Space - Time, the **paradoxical nature** of **influence** between measurements is **mitigated**. The influence does **not propagate instantaneously** between **pre-existing** Space - Time events but rather emerges as measurements occur,** respecting** the **relativistic constraints** on __ Causality__ [

__3__].

## A Quantum and Conceptual Framework relating to Space - Time

A recently proposed **conceptual framework** suggests that **quantum objects** do **not exist** within Space - Time until **measured**. Before measurement, the **Metric** (further information in ** here**, Section 4) relations these objects obey are

**independent**of the spacetime metric. This implies that the EPR paradox involves influences operating “

**outside**” Space - Time.

To **address** the EPR influence paradox, the framework proposes a concept of “**Areatime**” [__4__], a **reduced-dimensionality representation** of Space - Time. Entities existing in areatime do **not age** relative to those in Space - Time due to **orthogonal proper times**. **Interactions** within areatime, when **exceeding** a **certain limit**, cause the “**Actualization**” of **one possible state** into Space - Time, corresponding to the **collapse** of the **wave function** (further information in ** here**) in quantum mechanics.

**According** to this framework, **non-local quantum correlations** are a **manifestation** of **events** in areatime, **independent** of **Space - Time metric relations**. The framework posits that Space - Time itself may be **emergent**, a **result** of **processes** occurring in a **higher-dimensional areatime**.

This conceptual framework reinterprets the **standard ****path integral formulation** (further information in ** here**, Ref. 3) of quantum mechanics, distinguishing between

**actualizable**and

**actual paths**.

**Before measurement**, a quantum particle does not exist in Space - Time, only

**actualizable paths exist**.

**Measurement**collapses these

**paths**into an actual path,

**rendering**the particle real in Space - Time.

## Is There an Evidence of Non – Locality?

__ Bell__’s

__provided a__

**Theorem****method**to

**empirically test**the

**predictions**of quantum mechanics

**against**those of

**local hidden variable theories**.

**Experiments**confirmed the

**violation**of

**Bell**’s

**Inequalities**(

__Equation 1__) [

__5__],

**supporting**the

**non-local predictions**of quantum mechanics and

**challenging**the

**notion**of

**local realism**.

**Equation 1**. A Bell's Inequality: the Linear Combination of Measurements Averages

This **inequality** is derived from an **imaginary experiment**, in which two characters, Alice and Bob, having a particle a person, perform, separately, two different measurements. So [math]\small{A_{0,1}}[/math] and [math]\small{B_{0,1}}[/math] are, respectively, **Alice** and **Bob** **Binary****Measurements**; while the symbol [math]\small{\langle \rangle}[/math] stands for the __ Average__ of binary measurements.

## A New Perspective for Universe Structure

The **EPR paradoxe****s** challenge the **understanding** of **locality** and **causality**. By **proposing** that **quantum objects** only **actualiz**e within Space - Time upon **measurement**, and **suggesting** that **non-local influences** originate **outside** Space - Time, a **coherent conceptual framework** can be **constructed**. This framework not only **aligns** with **experimental observations** but also **provides** a novel **perspective** on the **fundamental nature** of **reality** and the **structure** of **Space - Time**. If **accurate**, it **implies** that the **fabric** of Space - Time and the **phenomena** we observe are **emergent properties** of deeper, **underlying processes** in **areatime**.

- Nature. "Steering is an essential feature of non-locality in quantum theory"
__https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-018-06255-5__ - Semantic Scholar. "Derivation of Bell’s locality condition from the relativity of simultaneity"
__https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Derivation-of-Bell's-locality-condition-from-the-of-Blood/39b33473ea59b73f71acc38e10a752a832bf8cf3__ - National Institute of Health. "On Explaining Quantum Correlations: Causal vs. Non-Causal"
__https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8151236/__ - arXiv.org. "Time in Quantum Theory"
__https://arxiv.org/pdf/0705.4638__ - ResearchGate. "Can violations of Bell’s inequalities be considered as the final proof of quantum physics ?"
__https://www.researchgate.net/publication/257528290_Can_violations_of_Bell's_inequalities_be_considere_as_the_final_proof_of_quantum_physics__