# The Effect of Dark Matter and Dark Energy on Gravitational Time Advancement

Nowadays, the **effects** of **Dark Matter** (__Figure 1__) and **Dark Energy** on **Gravitational Time Advancement**, on **local** and **large** **distance scales**, are quite known. Some research consider various **models** of dark matter and dark energy, including the __ Cosmological Constant__,

__and compares their impact on__

**Λ****gravitational phenomena**with the standard

**Schwarzschild Geometry**__(__

__Equation 1__).

## Beyond the Standard Theories...

Postulating the **acceleration** of the **Universe**'s **expansion**, the latest advancements led to the inclusion of dark energy, characterized by a negative pressure, into the ** Energy - Momentum Tensor**,

__of the Universe. Dark matter, a__

*T*^{ik}**non-luminous component**dominating

**galaxies**, is supported by observations such as

**rotation curve surveys**,

**cosmic microwave background**(

__Figure 2__) measurements [

__1__], and

**baryon acoustic oscillations**[

__2__].

**Equation 1**. The Schwarzschild Geometry equation

## Dark Energy and Dark Matter Models

The first and important candidate for dark energy is the cosmological constant, characterized by a **constant Energy Density** with an ** Equation-Of-State Parameter**,

**equal to -1. However, its theoretical problem lies in its size, significantly lower than the expected V**

*w***acuum Energy Density**. Various alternative theories, including

**Quintessence**[

__3__] and

**Chaplygin Gas Models**, (

**CG**) [

__4__] have been proposed to address this issue. Modifications to

**General Relativity**, such as

**and [math]\Large{f(R)}[/math]**

__scalar tensor theories__**gravity models**, have also been suggested to explain

**late-time accelerated expansion**with no reference to dark energy.

**Figure 1**. A figurative representation of Cosmos objects (white lights) surrounded

by Dark Matter lattice (red and blue structure)

Similarly, dark matter candidates include **WIMP**s [__5__], __ Axions__, and

**sterile Neutrinos**. Theories like

**propose modifications to**

__MOND__**Newtonian Dynamics**, while

**Conformal Gravitational Theory**[

__6__], based on

**, aims to explain flat rotation curves of**

__Weyl Symmetry__**Galaxies**without the need for dark matter.

## What is the Gravitational Time Advancement?

**Gravitational Time Advancement** occurs when an **observer** is in a stronger **gravitational field** compared to the **photon**'s **trajectory**. A study finds that dark energy leads to a **gravitational time delay**, reducing the gravitational time advancement effect. In contrast, the **conformal theory** suggests a **large time** advancement effect, particularly at distances beyond approximately **30 kpc** (Kiloparsec).

**Figure 2**. An instance of small ground station satellite antenna to pick up

the Milky Way Microwave Background

## Experimental Verification and Future Missions

This article emphasizes the challenging nature of experimentally verifying the gravitational time advancement effect. **BEACON** [__7__] and **GRACE-FO** [__8__] missions are expected to provide a higher accuracy in probing the **Earth**'s **gravitational field**, offering opportunities to measure gravitational time advancement effects at **large distances**.

## Gravitational Time Advancement as a Proof of Dark Matter and Dark Energy

However, **analytical expressions** are derived, revealing that dark energy induces a gravitational time delay, while the **Schwarzschild Metric** results in both time delay and time advancement effects. The findings suggest that measuring gravitational time advancement at large distances could serve as a means to prove the dark matter and certain **dark energy models**. Also **parameters**, on **upper bound conditions**, will be affected by this gravitational phenomenon.

- Space.com. "What is the cosmic microwave background?"
__https://www.space.com/33892-cosmic-microwave-background.html__ - Nasa (.gov). "Baryon Acoustic Oscillations - Roman Space Telescope"
__https://roman.gsfc.nasa.gov/BAO.html__ - Cerncourier.com. "The quintessence of cosmology"
__https://cerncourier.com/a/the-quintessence-of-cosmology/__ - Academic Accelerator. "Chaplygin Gas: Most Up-to-Date Encyclopedia, News & Reviews"
__https://academic-accelerator.com/encyclopedia/chaplygin-gas__ - Arstechnica. "No WIMPS! Heavy particles don’t explain gravitational lensing oddities"
__https://arstechnica.com/science/2023/04/gravitational-lensing-may-point-to-lighter-dark-matter-candidate/__ - Physics.wustl. "Quantum Conformal Gravity"
__https://physics.wustl.edu/events/quantum-conformal-gravity__ - ResearchGate. "A Search for New Physics with the BEACON Mission"
__https://www.researchgate.net/publication/1732985_A_Search_for_New_Physics_with_the_BEACON_Mission__ - Forbes. "NASA's GRACE-FO Mission Will Study How Earth's Climate Is Evolving"
__https://www.forbes.com/sites/jesseshanahan/2018/05/22/nasas-grace-fo-mission-will-study-how-earths-climate-is-evolving/__